Blood supply to the volar (palmar) surface of the hand originates from the radial and ulnar artery. As the arteries carry blood across the wrist and reach the palm, they anastomose to form two arches called the superficial volar arch and the deep volar arch. These arches, along with their branches, form an abundant network of blood vessels that is responsible for providing oxygenated blood to all musculoskeletal components of the hand and fingers.
Because the hand often performs a variety of tasks such as grasping objects and applying digital pressure across different planes of movement to carry out dynamic composite functions, the extensive collateral circulation of the hand serves an important role in providing adequate perfusion to all parts of the hand. The recent advancements in hand surgery have made understanding the arterial pattern of the hand and its variants crucial for safe and successful surgical outcomes. This article presents an overview of the hand volar arch arteries and discusses the structure and function, embryology, muscle groups, physiologic variants, surgical considerations, and clinical significance.