Earn CME/CE in your profession:

Continuing Education Activity

Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that is used to reverse steroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs rocuronium and vecuronium. It does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase-like traditional reversal agents, such as neostigmine; therefore, the use of an antimuscarinic agent such as glycopyrrolate is unnecessary. This activity outlines the indications, mechanisms of action, methods of administration, important adverse effects, contraindications, and monitoring, of sugammadex, so providers can direct patient therapy in treating indicated disorders as part of the interprofessional team with a basis on the current knowledge for optimal utilization.


  • Identify the mechanism of action of sugammadex.
  • Review the indicated uses for sugammadex.
  • Describe the potential adverse effects of sugammadex.
  • Summarize how interprofessional coordination can improve surgical outcomes with sugammadex use.


Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin designed for optimal encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking drug rocuronium, preventing rocuronium from acting at the acetylcholine receptor.[1] Though not designed to bind vecuronium, sugammadex also binds and rapidly reverses vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.[2] Sugammadex carries a Food and Drug Administration approval for antagonism of both rocuronium- and vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in adults.[3]

Mechanism of Action

Sugammadex contains eight identical hydroxyl chains bound together to create a ring with a hydrophobic core and a hydrophilic outer surface.[1] The three-dimensional structure of sugammadex resembles a doughnut.[4] The core of sugammadex is large enough to fit the aminosteroid non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) rocuronium and vecuronium inside. Once inside, non-covalent hydrophobic interactions secure the NMBD to form water-soluble inclusion complexes.[4] 

The sugammadex-rocuronium inclusion complex has a very high association constant (1.79 x 10 mol/L).[5] Higher association constants mean the affinity between molecules is greater. Using this association constant, it has been calculated that the ratio of sugammadex-rocuronium inclusion complexes to sugammadex-rocuronium dissociations is 25 million to 1.[6] Thus, once rocuronium is bound to sugammadex, it can be considered irreversibly fixed.

The sugammadex-vecuronium complex has a 3-fold lower association constant (5.72 x 10 mol/L) compared to sugammadex-rocuronium.[5] However, vecuronium is six times more potent than rocuronium and is administered in lower doses.[5] The encapsulation of NMBD by sugammadex occurs in a 1 to 1 ratio. Thus, the lower sugammadex-vecuronium complex association constant is balanced against the need to encapsulate fewer molecules. In conclusion, sugammadex is equally effective at antagonizing vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade, compared to rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.[2][7]

Sugammadex reverses neuromuscular blockade by encapsulating free NMBD in plasma. This decreases the plasma concentration of free NMBD, which creates a concentration gradient between the muscle tissue compartment and plasma. Consequently, free NMBD moves from the muscle tissue compartment to plasma; these NMBD are encapsulated by plasma sugammadex, which maintains the lower concentration of free NMBD in plasma and fuels the cycle. Consequently, there is a rapid decrease in the concentration of NMBD at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor within the neuromuscular junction. This allows neuromuscular activity to resume.[8]

Sugammadex does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase-like traditional reversal agents, such as neostigmine; therefore, co-administration of an antimuscarinic drug such as glycopyrrolate is unnecessary.[9]


Administration of sugammadex from 2 mg/kg to 16 mg/kg demonstrates a linear and dose-dependent pharmacokinetic relationship, with an elimination half-life of 100 to 150 minutes and near 100% renal clearance.[10][11][12] Since sugammadex acts by forming complexes at a 1:1 ratio, a higher dose of sugammadex is required to antagonize a greater depth of neuromuscular blockade: 2 mg/kg for reversal of moderate neuromuscular blockade (two twitches in response to train-of-four stimulation), 4 mg/kg for deep blockade (one to two post-tetanic counts after a 5 second 50-hertz tetany), and 16 mg/kg for immediate reversal following an intubating dose of rocuronium (1.2 mg/kg).[12] Recovery from a 2 or 4 mg/kg dose of sugammadex is significantly faster than antagonism with neostigmine, allowing the achievement of a train-of-four ratio > 0.9 in an average of 3 minutes. Furthermore, sugammadex can reverse deep block faster than neostigmine can reverse moderate block.[13]

While vecuronium and rocuronium should be dosed according to ideal body weight, sugammadex should be dosed according to actual body weight. For obese patients, the use of ideal body weight is likely not enough to achieve full reversal from rocuronium.[14][15]

A few options for reinitiating neuromuscular blockade after administering sugammadex include redosing rocuronium or vecuronium, administering succinylcholine, or administering a neuromuscular blocking drug from the benzylisoquinoline class. The company that manufactures sugammadex recommends a minimum waiting period of 5 minutes before administering a 1.2 mg/kg dose of rocuronium and a minimum waiting period of 4 hours before administering a 0.6 mg/kg dose of rocuronium or a 0.1 mg/kg dose of vecuronium. The product insert for sugammadex warms that patients receiving a 1.2 mg/kg dose of rocuronium within 30 minutes of reversal are likely to experience delayed onset and shortened duration of neuromuscular blockade. For patients that receive a 16 mg/kg dose of sugammadex, a minimum wait time of 24 hours is likely needed.

Sugammadex does not bind to succinylcholine or benzylisoquinoline neuromuscular blocking drugs such as mivacurium, atracurium, and cisatracurium.[9] Succinylcholine-induced neuromuscular blockade has been shown to be delayed when administered after sugammadex.  Conversely, cisatracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade has been shown to have a faster onset and results in a deeper level of block when administered after sugammadex.[9]

Adverse Effects

The most commonly reported adverse reactions after sugammadex administration are nausea and vomiting, headache, itching, procedural pain, and dysgeusia.[16][17] 

Bradycardia has been noted after sugammadex administration, with some reports of cardiac arrest.[18] The manufacturer clearly disclosed in the package insert and subsequent briefing documents that bradycardia is a known side effect for sugammadex. The etiology of sugammadex-associated bradycardia is unknown, though there are reports of QT prolongation after sugammadex administration.[11] Anticholinergics such as atropine have been administered to counteract marked bradycardia and prevent cardiovascular collapse. It is recommended that vasoactive drugs such as epinephrine and atropine be available whenever sugammadex is administered.

Though more of a characteristic of rapid recovery from neuromuscular blockade than a side effect, surgeons have noticed that patients under light anesthesia may start to cough or move when sugammadex is administered.

Reoccurrence of, or residual neuromuscular blockade, is possible when sugammadex is underdosed.[16][19] It is now considered best practice to utilize quantitative neuromuscular monitoring with a device such as an electromyograph or acceleromyograph to avoid the underdosing of sugammadex.[20]

Bronchospasm after the administration of sugammadex has been reported—the incidence appears to be quite low.[16][21]

Sugammadex is biologically inactive and is generally well tolerated.  However, concerns related to anaphylaxis caused the Food and Drug Administration to delay approval for sugammadex for years. An early manufacturer-sponsored study found a 0.3% incidence of anaphylaxis.  The study involved 299 subjects, and one subject who received the largest dose, 16 mg/kg, had an anaphylactic reaction. Sugammadex has been approved in the United States since 2015, in Japan since 2010, and in the European Union since 2008.  The true rate of anaphylaxis appears to be much lower, perhaps similar to the incidence of anaphylaxis from rocuronium.[22][23] Reassuringly, anaphylaxis does not seem to be more common with repeated exposure.  The risk of anaphylaxis appears to be higher when higher doses are administered.  The most common clinical symptoms associated with anaphylaxis are skin changes (flushing, rash, erythema, and urticaria) and hypotension.


Sugammadex is contraindicated for patients with a history of hypersensitivity reaction, ranging from isolated skin reactions to anaphylaxis. In a study conducted by the manufacturer, the incidence of hypersensitivity in patients with given doses of placebo, 4 mg/kg, or 16 mg/kg was 1%, 7%, and 9%, respectively.

Patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 30 mL/min are currently not considered candidates for sugammadex. Plasma clearance and urinary excretion of rocuronium and sugammadex are significantly decreased in patients with a creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min.[24]  Patients with renal failure should be monitored closely if the decision to give sugammadex is made. Sugammadex, as well as sugammadex-rocuronium complexes, can be effectively cleared by hemodialysis.[25]

Patients who take the medications toremifene (an estrogen receptor modulator) or fusidic acid (an antibiotic) require monitoring for possible prolonged neuromuscular blockade. Toremifene and fusidic acid have a high affinity for sugammadex, leading to the possible displacement of rocuronium or vecuronium from the sugammadex molecule.[26]

The remaining contraindications should be considered relative. The decision to administer sugammadex should be determined on a patient-by-patient basis after weighing individual risks and benefits.

Through in vitro and in vivo studies, it has been established that sugammadex can prolong the prothrombin time (PT) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). In a study conducted by the drug manufacturer, healthy volunteers receiving 4 to 16 mg/kg of sugammadex demonstrated a 25% prolongation in aPTT and PT that lasted for 1 hour. However, this laboratory coagulopathy has not translated to more bleeding events or a higher incidence of anemia during surgery.[27] It has been hypothesized that the prolongation in PT and aPTT seen after sugammadex administration may be an in vitro artifact.[28] In vitro experiments have demonstrated a further prolongation of PT and PTT when sugammadex is administered in combination with unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin, warfarin, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran. Accordingly, extra caution is necessary when administering sugammadex to patients taking anticoagulant medications.

Few studies have been conducted on children. The recommended doses for adults appear to be equally efficacious and safe in children.[29] The manufacturer’s official stance is that sugammadex is not approved for administration to patients under 18 years of age.

There is very little information regarding the use of sugammadex in patients who are pregnant. Sugammadex appears to be effective and has a low maternal side effect profile when administered during cesarean delivery.[30][31] Sugammadex may predispose to skeletal teratogenicity. There has not been evidence of teratogenicity in humans administered up to 16 mg/kg or in rats administered six times the maximum recommended human dose (16 mg/kg). However, pregnant rabbits administered sugammadex at double the maximum recommended human dose delivered low birth weight progeny. In addition, progeny born to pregnant rabbits administered sugammadex at eight times the maximum recommended human dose had incomplete foot and sternum ossification.  It is plausible that sugammadex caused this incomplete ossification. Sugammadex has been shown to remain in areas of active mineralization long after it has been eliminated from plasma—the half-life of sugammadex in bone is 172 days.

The use of sugammadex in breastfeeding patients is likely safe, but there is insufficient data to understand the effect of sugammadex on milk letdown, breastfeeding success, and fetal safety. While it is unknown if the drug is secreted into human breast milk, the likelihood of effects on the infant is low. Sugammadex was present in rat milk in one study, with the maximum drug level occurring 30 minutes after intravenous administration. The Drug and Lactation Database currently states that fetal exposure to sugammadex through breast milk is likely to be low and that sugammadex administration to breastfeeding women is acceptable.[32]

Patients taking hormonal birth control to prevent pregnancy should consider nonhormonal alternatives for one week after exposure to sugammadex. Sugammadex can bind to progesterone and decrease the effectiveness of hormone-based contraception. Receiving a single dose of sugammadex has been stated to be similar to missing one dose of birth control containing estrogen or progesterone. It is recommended that institutions develop a standard handout describing the effect of sugammadex on hormone contraception and recommending additional barrier contraception for seven days following surgery.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

It is now undisputed that sugammadex provides a faster and more complete reversal of neuromuscular blockade than neostigmine. However, for the vast majority of institutions, sugammadex remains more expensive than neostigmine. There is significant international interest in determining if the increased cost of sugammadex can be offset by increased operating room efficiency, better surgical outcomes, shorter recovery room times, fewer postoperative complications, and reduced hospital readmission rates.

Residual neuromuscular blockade is common after surgery, with an estimated 30 to 60% incidence in the recovery room.[33][34][35] Low-level neuromuscular blockade, lower than what can be observed with the naked eye, has been linked to hypoxia, supralaryngeal muscle weakness that predisposes to upper airway obstruction, impaired swallowing, and an increased risk for aspiration.[34][36][37][38][39] Sugammadex increases the speed of neuromuscular blockade reversal and greatly reduces the risk for residual neuromuscular paralysis.  Faster antagonism of neuromuscular blockade from sugammadex has been linked to a shorter time interval between neuromuscular blockade antagonism to operating room discharge and a lower 30-day hospital readmission rate.[40][41][16]

Evidence is emerging that sugammadex may reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. A single-institution interrupted time series analysis and a large multi-institution retrospective matched cohort study found a lower rate of postoperative pulmonary complications with sugammadex than neostigmine.[42][43][42] Prospective, randomized, controlled trials have not found a difference in the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications after the administration of sugammadex compared to neostigmine.[16][44] However, it is widely believed these studies were underpowered. 

There is budding interest in determining if sugammadex may help reduce the incidence of postoperative ileus. The incidence of postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery has been reported to be 10 to 25%.[45][46][47] The alternative neuromuscular blockade antagonism regimen to sugammadex, neostigmine, and glycopyrrolate both impact bowel function. Sugammadex does not bind to acetylcholine receptors in the bowel and appears not to affect bowel function. Retrospective studies have found that sugammadex is associated with faster time to first bowel movement and less ileus-related delays in hospital discharge.[48][49] Conversely, two randomized, controlled trials found no difference in time to first bowel movement or rate of postoperative ileus.[33][50] Future investigation is needed to determine if sugammadex has a role in speeding up the recovery of bowel function and reducing the rate of postoperative ileus.

In summary, sugammadex is a valuable tool to reverse neuromuscular blockade administered to perform many procedures and surgeries, but for safe and effective use, it requires the efforts of an interprofessional team, including clinicians, surgeons, specialists, anesthesiologists/nurse anesthetists, surgical nurses, and pharmacists. AN interprofessional approach will improve patient outcomes and fewer adverse events when using sugammadex in situations where it has indicated use. [Levle 5]

Article Details

Article Author

Kaarthik Chandrasekhar

Article Author

Brandon Togioka

Article Editor:

Jeremiah Jeffers


5/3/2022 4:34:24 PM

PubMed Link:




Gijsenbergh F,Ramael S,Houwing N,van Iersel T, First human exposure of Org 25969, a novel agent to reverse the action of rocuronium bromide. Anesthesiology. 2005 Oct;     [PubMed PMID: 16192761]


Suy K,Morias K,Cammu G,Hans P,van Duijnhoven WG,Heeringa M,Demeyer I, Effective reversal of moderate rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block with sugammadex, a selective relaxant binding agent. Anesthesiology. 2007 Feb;     [PubMed PMID: 17264722]


Thompson CA, Sugammadex approved to reverse NMBA effects. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2016 Feb 1;     [PubMed PMID: 26796899]


Cameron KS,Clark JK,Cooper A,Fielding L,Palin R,Rutherford SJ,Zhang MQ, Modified gamma-cyclodextrins and their rocuronium complexes. Organic letters. 2002 Oct 3;     [PubMed PMID: 12323029]


Asztalos L,Szabó-Maák Z,Gajdos A,Nemes R,Pongrácz A,Lengyel S,Fülesdi B,Tassonyi E, Reversal of Vecuronium-induced Neuromuscular Blockade with Low-dose Sugammadex at Train-of-four Count of Four: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Anesthesiology. 2017 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 28640017]


Nag K,Singh DR,Shetti AN,Kumar H,Sivashanmugam T,Parthasarathy S, Sugammadex: A revolutionary drug in neuromuscular pharmacology. Anesthesia, essays and researches. 2013 Sep-Dec;     [PubMed PMID: 25885973]


Khuenl-Brady KS,Wattwil M,Vanacker BF,Lora-Tamayo JI,Rietbergen H,Alvarez-Gómez JA, Sugammadex provides faster reversal of vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade compared with neostigmine: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2010 Jan 1;     [PubMed PMID: 19713265]


Epemolu O,Bom A,Hope F,Mason R, Reversal of neuromuscular blockade and simultaneous increase in plasma rocuronium concentration after the intravenous infusion of the novel reversal agent Org 25969. Anesthesiology. 2003 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 12960547]


Naguib M, Sugammadex: another milestone in clinical neuromuscular pharmacology. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2007 Mar;     [PubMed PMID: 17312211]


Pühringer FK,Gordon M,Demeyer I,Sparr HJ,Ingimarsson J,Klarin B,van Duijnhoven W,Heeringa M, Sugammadex rapidly reverses moderate rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular block during sevoflurane anaesthesia: a dose-response relationship. British journal of anaesthesia. 2010 Nov;     [PubMed PMID: 20876699]


Pühringer FK,Rex C,Sielenkämper AW,Claudius C,Larsen PB,Prins ME,Eikermann M,Khuenl-Brady KS, Reversal of profound, high-dose rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade by sugammadex at two different time points: an international, multicenter, randomized, dose-finding, safety assessor-blinded, phase II trial. Anesthesiology. 2008 Aug;     [PubMed PMID: 18648227]


Schaller SJ,Fink H, Sugammadex as a reversal agent for neuromuscular block: an evidence-based review. Core evidence. 2013;     [PubMed PMID: 24098155]


Geldner G,Niskanen M,Laurila P,Mizikov V,Hübler M,Beck G,Rietbergen H,Nicolayenko E, A randomised controlled trial comparing sugammadex and neostigmine at different depths of neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Anaesthesia. 2012 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 22698066]


Llauradó S,Sabaté A,Ferreres E,Camprubí I,Cabrera A, Sugammadex ideal body weight dose adjusted by level of neuromuscular blockade in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Anesthesiology. 2012 Jul;     [PubMed PMID: 22549697]


Van Lancker P,Dillemans B,Bogaert T,Mulier JP,De Kock M,Haspeslagh M, Ideal versus corrected body weight for dosage of sugammadex in morbidly obese patients. Anaesthesia. 2011 Aug;     [PubMed PMID: 21692760]


Togioka BM,Yanez D,Aziz MF,Higgins JR,Tekkali P,Treggiari MM, Randomised controlled trial of sugammadex or neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular block on the incidence of pulmonary complications in older adults undergoing prolonged surgery. British journal of anaesthesia. 2020 May;     [PubMed PMID: 32139135]


Flockton EA,Mastronardi P,Hunter JM,Gomar C,Mirakhur RK,Aguilera L,Giunta FG,Meistelman C,Prins ME, Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with sugammadex is faster than reversal of cisatracurium-induced block with neostigmine. British journal of anaesthesia. 2008 May;     [PubMed PMID: 18385265]


Hunter JM,Naguib M, Sugammadex-induced bradycardia and asystole: how great is the risk? British journal of anaesthesia. 2018 Jul;     [PubMed PMID: 29935599]


Kotake Y,Ochiai R,Suzuki T,Ogawa S,Takagi S,Ozaki M,Nakatsuka I,Takeda J, Reversal with sugammadex in the absence of monitoring did not preclude residual neuromuscular block. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2013 Aug;     [PubMed PMID: 23757472]


Naguib M,Brull SJ,Kopman AF,Hunter JM,Fülesdi B,Arkes HR,Elstein A,Todd MM,Johnson KB, Consensus Statement on Perioperative Use of Neuromuscular Monitoring. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2018 Jul;     [PubMed PMID: 29200077]


Baronos S,Selvaraj BJ,Liang M,Ahmed K,Yarmush J, Sugammadex-induced bronchospasm during desflurane anaesthesia. British journal of anaesthesia. 2019 Jul;     [PubMed PMID: 31027913]


Miyazaki Y,Sunaga H,Kida K,Hobo S,Inoue N,Muto M,Uezono S, Incidence of Anaphylaxis Associated With Sugammadex. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2018 May;     [PubMed PMID: 29064876]


Min KC,Woo T,Assaid C,McCrea J,Gurner DM,Sisk CM,Adkinson F,Herring WJ, Incidence of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis with sugammadex. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2018 Jun;     [PubMed PMID: 29621739]


Staals LM,Snoeck MM,Driessen JJ,van Hamersvelt HW,Flockton EA,van den Heuvel MW,Hunter JM, Reduced clearance of rocuronium and sugammadex in patients with severe to end-stage renal failure: a pharmacokinetic study. British journal of anaesthesia. 2010 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 20007792]


Cammu G,Van Vlem B,van den Heuvel M,Stet L,el Galta R,Eloot S,Demeyer I, Dialysability of sugammadex and its complex with rocuronium in intensive care patients with severe renal impairment. British journal of anaesthesia. 2012 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 22732111]


Zwiers A,van den Heuvel M,Smeets J,Rutherford S, Assessment of the potential for displacement interactions with sugammadex: a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling approach. Clinical drug investigation. 2011;     [PubMed PMID: 21067251]


Moon YJ,Kim SH,Kim JW,Lee YK,Jun IG,Hwang GS, Comparison of postoperative coagulation profiles and outcome for sugammadex versus pyridostigmine in 992 living donors after living-donor hepatectomy. Medicine. 2018 Mar;     [PubMed PMID: 29538210]


Dirkmann D,Britten MW,Pauling H,Weidle J,Volbracht L,Görlinger K,Peters J, Anticoagulant Effect of Sugammadex: Just an In Vitro Artifact. Anesthesiology. 2016 Jun;     [PubMed PMID: 26950705]


Plaud B,Meretoja O,Hofmockel R,Raft J,Stoddart PA,van Kuijk JH,Hermens Y,Mirakhur RK, Reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex in pediatric and adult surgical patients. Anesthesiology. 2009 Feb;     [PubMed PMID: 19194156]


Pühringer FK,Kristen P,Rex C, Sugammadex reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block in Caesarean section patients: a series of seven cases. British journal of anaesthesia. 2010 Nov;     [PubMed PMID: 20736231]


Nauheimer D,Kollath C,Geldner G, [Modified rapid sequence induction for Caesarian sections : case series on the use of rocuronium and sugammadex]. Der Anaesthesist. 2012 Aug;     [PubMed PMID: 22875060]


Sugammadex 2006;     [PubMed PMID: 29999983]


Brueckmann B,Sasaki N,Grobara P,Li MK,Woo T,de Bie J,Maktabi M,Lee J,Kwo J,Pino R,Sabouri AS,McGovern F,Staehr-Rye AK,Eikermann M, Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled study. British journal of anaesthesia. 2015 Nov;     [PubMed PMID: 25935840]


Murphy GS,Szokol JW,Marymont JH,Greenberg SB,Avram MJ,Vender JS, Residual neuromuscular blockade and critical respiratory events in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2008 Jul;     [PubMed PMID: 18635478]


Cammu G,De Witte J,De Veylder J,Byttebier G,Vandeput D,Foubert L,Vandenbroucke G,Deloof T, Postoperative residual paralysis in outpatients versus inpatients. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2006 Feb;     [PubMed PMID: 16428537]


Herbstreit F,Peters J,Eikermann M, Impaired upper airway integrity by residual neuromuscular blockade: increased airway collapsibility and blunted genioglossus muscle activity in response to negative pharyngeal pressure. Anesthesiology. 2009 Jun;     [PubMed PMID: 19417617]


Eikermann M,Vogt FM,Herbstreit F,Vahid-Dastgerdi M,Zenge MO,Ochterbeck C,de Greiff A,Peters J, The predisposition to inspiratory upper airway collapse during partial neuromuscular blockade. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2007 Jan 1;     [PubMed PMID: 17023729]


Sundman E,Witt H,Olsson R,Ekberg O,Kuylenstierna R,Eriksson LI, The incidence and mechanisms of pharyngeal and upper esophageal dysfunction in partially paralyzed humans: pharyngeal videoradiography and simultaneous manometry after atracurium. Anesthesiology. 2000 Apr;     [PubMed PMID: 10754616]


Eriksson LI,Sundman E,Olsson R,Nilsson L,Witt H,Ekberg O,Kuylenstierna R, Functional assessment of the pharynx at rest and during swallowing in partially paralyzed humans: simultaneous videomanometry and mechanomyography of awake human volunteers. Anesthesiology. 1997 Nov;     [PubMed PMID: 9366453]


Carron M,Zarantonello F,Lazzarotto N,Tellaroli P,Ori C, Role of sugammadex in accelerating postoperative discharge: A meta-analysis. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2017 Jun;     [PubMed PMID: 28494905]


Oh TK,Oh AY,Ryu JH,Koo BW,Song IA,Nam SW,Jee HJ, Retrospective analysis of 30-day unplanned readmission after major abdominal surgery with reversal by sugammadex or neostigmine. British journal of anaesthesia. 2019 Mar;     [PubMed PMID: 30770055]


Krause M,McWilliams SK,Bullard KJ,Mayes LM,Jameson LC,Mikulich-Gilbertson SK,Fernandez-Bustamante A,Bartels K, Neostigmine Versus Sugammadex for Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade and Effects on Reintubation for Respiratory Failure or Newly Initiated Noninvasive Ventilation: An Interrupted Time Series Design. Anesthesia and analgesia. 2019 Nov 5;     [PubMed PMID: 31702700]


Kheterpal S,Vaughn MT,Dubovoy TZ,Shah NJ,Bash LD,Colquhoun DA,Shanks AM,Mathis MR,Soto RG,Bardia A,Bartels K,McCormick PJ,Schonberger RB,Saager L, Sugammadex versus Neostigmine for Reversal of Neuromuscular Blockade and Postoperative Pulmonary Complications (STRONGER): A Multicenter Matched Cohort Analysis. Anesthesiology. 2020 Jun;     [PubMed PMID: 32282427]


Alday E,Muñoz M,Planas A,Mata E,Alvarez C, Effects of neuromuscular block reversal with sugammadex versus neostigmine on postoperative respiratory outcomes after major abdominal surgery: a randomized-controlled trial. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2019 Nov;     [PubMed PMID: 31165457]


Tevis SE,Kennedy GD, Postoperative Complications: Looking Forward to a Safer Future. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery. 2016 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 27582650]


Asgeirsson T,El-Badawi KI,Mahmood A,Barletta J,Luchtefeld M,Senagore AJ, Postoperative ileus: it costs more than you expect. Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2010 Feb;     [PubMed PMID: 20113944]


Wolthuis AM,Bislenghi G,Fieuws S,de Buck van Overstraeten A,Boeckxstaens G,D'Hoore A, Incidence of prolonged postoperative ileus after colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland. 2016 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 26558477]


Deljou A,Schroeder DR,Ballinger BA,Sprung J,Weingarten TN, Effects of Sugammadex on Time of First Postoperative Bowel Movement: A Retrospective Analysis. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality     [PubMed PMID: 31485567]


Chae YJ,Joe HB,Oh J,Lee E,Yi IK, Thirty-Day Postoperative Outcomes Following Sugammadex Use in Colorectal Surgery Patients; Retrospective Study. Journal of clinical medicine. 2019 Jan 16;     [PubMed PMID: 30654513]


Sen A,Erdivanli B,Tomak Y,Pergel A, Reversal of neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex or neostigmine/atropine: Effect on postoperative gastrointestinal motility. Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2016 Aug;     [PubMed PMID: 27290978]