Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a disorder in which a local blood coagulation impairs the venous return of the bowel. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosis is considered spontaneous and idiopathic, while secondary mesenteric venous thrombosis arises from an underlying disease or risk factor. This condition can lead to venous engorgement and mesenteric ischemia and accounts for 5% to 15% of all mesenteric ischemic events. Thrombosis commonly involves the superior mesenteric vein, but rarely the inferior mesenteric vein. Delayed detection or treatment of mesenteric venous thrombosis allows intestinal infarction to develop, which can be life-threatening. Although mesenteric venous thrombosis is a relatively rare condition, mortality remains high due to nonspecific symptoms, delayed diagnosis, and insufficient clinician awareness.