Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Nursing)

Learning Outcome

  1. Describe the signs and symptoms of anxiety
  2. Recall the DSM V criteria for diagnosis of anxiety
  3. Sumamrize the treatment of anxiety
  4. Describe the nursing management of anxiety


Generalized anxiety disorder is one of the most common mental disorders. Up to 20% of adults are affected by anxiety disorders each year. Generalized anxiety disorder produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. Generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things. This worry could be multifocal such as finance, family, health, and the future. It is excessive, difficult to control, and is often accompanied by many non-specific psychological and physical symptoms. Excessive worry is the central feature of generalized anxiety disorder.[1][2][3]

Diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) include the following:

  • Excessive anxiety and worry for at least six months
  • Difficulty controlling the worrying.

Anxiety and worry associated with at least three of the following:

  • Restlessness, feeling keyed up or on edge
  • Being easily fatigued, difficulty in concentrating or mind going blank, irritability
  • Muscle tension
  • Sleep disturbance.

Nursing Diagnosis

  • Apprehension
  • Nervous
  • Feel insecure
  • Irritable
  • Helpless
  • Lack of sleep
  • Restless
  • Confused
  • Fear of the unknown
  • Dry mouth
  • Facial flushing
  • Fast heart rate
  • Twitching
  • Faint
  • Fatigue
  • Vague pain
  • Urinary urgency


The etiology may include:

  • Stress
  • Physical condition such as diabetes or other comorbidities such as depression
  • Genetic, first-degree relatives with generalized anxiety disorder (25%)
  • Environmental factors, such as child abuse
  • Substance abuse.

Risk Factors

Childhood anxiety occurs in about 1 in 4 children at some time between the ages of 13 and 18 years. The median age at onset is 11 years.  However, the lifetime prevalence of a severe anxiety disorder in children ages 13 to 18 is approximately 6%. General prevalence in children younger than 18 years is between 5.7% and 12.8%. The prevalence is approximately twice as high among women as among men.[4][5][6]

The American Psychiatric Association first introduced the diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder two decades ago in the DSM-III. Before that time, generalized anxiety disorder was conceptualized as one of the two core components of anxiety neurosis, the other being panic. A recognition that generalized anxiety disorder and panic, although often occurring together, are sufficiently distinct to be considered independent disorders led to their separation in the DSM-III.

The DSM-III definition of generalized anxiety disorder required uncontrollable and diffuse (i.e., not focused on a single major life problem) anxiety or worry that is excessive or unrealistic in relation to objective life circumstances, and that persists for one month or longer. Several related psychophysiological symptoms were also required for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder. Early clinical studies evaluating DSM-III according to this definition found that the disorder seldom occurred in the absence of another comorbid anxiety or mood disorder. Comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder and major depression was especially strong and led some commentators to suggest that generalized anxiety disorder might better be conceptualized as a prodrome, residual, or severity marker than as an independent disorder. The rate of comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder with other disorders decreases as the duration of generalized anxiety disorder increases. Based on this finding, the DSM-III-R committee on generalized anxiety disorder recommended that the duration requirement for the disorder be increased to six months. This change was implemented in the final version of the DSM-III-R. Additional changes in the definition of excessive worry and the required number of associated psychophysiological symptoms were made in the DSM-IV.

These changes in diagnostic criteria led to delays in cumulating data on the epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder. Nonetheless, such data became available over the past decade. As described in more detail later, this new data challenged the view that generalized anxiety disorder should be conceptualized as a prodrome, residual, or severity marker of other disorders. Instead, it suggest that generalized anxiety disorder is a common disorder that, although often comorbid with other mental disorders, does not have a rate of comorbidity that is higher than those found in most other anxiety or mood disorders. The new data also challenged the validity of the threshold decisions embodied in the DSM-IV.


Patients with anxiety can pose a diagnostic challenge, as somatic symptoms are more common than psychologic symptoms. Most patients present with vague or nonspecific somatic complaints, including, but not limited to, shortness of breath, palpitations, fatigability, headache, dizziness, and restlessness.  Patients may also describe psychologic symptoms such as excessive, nonspecific anxiety and worry, emotional lability, difficulty concentrating, and insomnia.


Initial assessment begins by addressing behavior or somatic symptoms. Evaluate for psychosocial stress, psychosocial difficulties, and developmental issues. Review past medical history, including trauma, psychiatric conditions, and substance abuse.[7]

The following evaluation may be obtained to exclude organic causes:

  • Thyroid function tests
  • Blood glucose level 
  • Echocardiography
  • Toxicology screen

The Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item (GAD-7) Questionnaire is a screening tool that can also be used to monitor patients with generalized anxiety disorder.

Medical Management

The two main treatments for generalized anxiety disorder are cognitive behavior therapy and medications. Patients may benefit most from a combination of the two. It may take some trial and error to discover which treatments work best.[8][9][10]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

This includes psychoeducation, changing maladaptive thoughts patterns, and gradual exposure to anxiety-provoking situations.


Several types of medications are used to treat generalized anxiety disorder.


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) classes are the first-line agents with a response rate of 30% to 50%. This class of drugs includes escitalopram (Lexapro), duloxetine (Cymbalta), venlafaxine (Effexor XR) and paroxetine (Paxil, Pexeva). In a study, 81% of children with anxiety disorders who received a combined sertraline hydrochloride and CBT were responded to the treatment.


Examples diazepam and clonazepam are long-acting agents. These agents are used when an immediate reduction of symptoms is desired, or a short-term treatment is needed. Generally, cooperative and compliant patients who are aware that their symptoms have a psychological basis are more likely to respond to benzodiazepines. Since there is a concern for misuse and dependence, patients with a history of alcoholism or drug abuse are not appropriate candidates for this treatment.

Buspirone (BuSpar)

Buspirone is a non-benzodiazepine which does not cause dependency. It is also less sedating than benzodiazepines, and tolerance does not occur at therapeutic doses. This agent has a therapeutic lag in the efficacy of two to three weeks which limits its use.

Nursing Management

  1. Assess for anxiety by asking if patient is feeling nervousness, fear, panic, having butterflies, feeling tense
  2. Assess autonomic nervous system: Check heart rate, breathing, sweating, dry mouth, tremor or twitching
  3. Use a anxiety tool to determine seveity of symptoms
  • Be supprotive
  • Acknowledge patient feelings
  • Communicate and educate
  • Familiarize patient to surroundings
  • Interact in a calm manner
  • Convers in simple language
  • Reinforce patient's reactions that it is okay to feel nervous
  • Listen to what the patient is saying
  • Have a calm room for the patient
  • Avoid triggers like caffeine
  • Teach patient deep breathing exercises to relieve stress
  • Educate patient about anti-anxiety medications

When To Seek Help

  • Severe behavior alterations
  • Alteration in mood
  • Unable to cope
  • Extreme fear and anxiety

Outcome Identification

  • Able to cope
  • Normal thought process
  • Reassured
  • Can problem solve
  • Reduced anxiety
  • Verbalizes conflicts
  • Develops problem solving skills
  • Facial expression relaxed


  • Vitals
  • Mood
  • Behavior
  • Mental status
  • Concentration
  • Cognition

Coordination of Care

Anxiety disorders are very common and can have diverse presentation of signs and symptoms. The condition has a very high morbidity and mortality and thus is best managed by a multidisciplinary team that includes a mental health nurse, pharmacist, psychologist, a psychiatrist and the primary care provider. Overall, anxiety disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated. When left untreated, anxiety disorders often lead to severe depression and abuse of drugs and alcohol. In addition, there is a high rate of suicide among these patients. Many patients with chronic anxiety have a poor quality of life. The education of both the patient and family is important to reduce the high morbidity. Family members should help ensure medication compliance and provide a supportive environment. Unfortunately, despite optimal treatment, relapse rates are high. [11][12][13](Level V)

Health Teaching and Health Promotion

  • Reduce triggers like tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine
  • Learn to relax
  • Practice yoga, deep breathing
  • Remain compliant with medications
  • Seek help if unable to cope
  • Eat healthy
  • Join a support group

Discharge Planning

  • Follow up with a clinician
  • Avoid alcohol and nicotine
  • Avoid caffeinated beverages
  • Avoid the use of illicit drugs
  • Eat a healthy diet

Pearls and Other issues

Consider further evaluation for anxiety disorder if an adult is excessively anxious or an infant or child is excessively clingy and difficult to console during the pediatric visit. Many medical conditions may mimic anxiety disorders. One should distinguish between the anxiety and the illness and should evaluate for organic diseases before making this diagnosis.

Article Details

Nurse Editor

Virginia Coletti

Article Author

Sadaf Munir

Article Editor:

Veronica Takov


11/5/2021 10:31:14 PM



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