Congenital lung diseases are rare but exceptionally distinct in their presentation ranging from large masses requiring immediate surgical intervention to small and asymptomatic lesions. The effects of congenital lung malformation can be critical; thus, a knowledge of the diagnosis and treatment of these abnormalities is essential. Lung development and anatomy are key fundamentals in consideration of these malformations and helps in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of each disease.
Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is a rare developmental malformation of the lung with a wide range of presentations, which poses a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma and associated with high morbidity and mortality. CLE is characterized by respiratory distress due to overexpansion of one or more pulmonary lobes of the histologically normal lung without the destruction of alveolar walls with compression of surrounding lung parenchyma; that is why it is also called congenital lung overinflation. There is air trapping in the lung during the expiratory phase of respiration due to deficient bronchial cartilage, which causes repeated episodes of respiratory distress. The affected lobe is essentially non-functional because of overdistention and air trapping. It is frequently recognized in newborns; however, a few cases do not get evident until adulthood. This disease is potentially reversible if diagnosed and treated on time.
The etiology of congenital lobar emphysema in not known in 50% of the patients. In 25% of the patients, there is an absence of bronchial cartilage, hypoplasia, or dysplasia. Due to absent or defective cartilage, there is bronchial collapse and thus air trapping during expiration. The congenital lobar emphysema could be due to:
Congenital lobar emphysema could be due to parenchymal disease like a poly-alveolar lobe. A poly-alveolar lobe theory for the etiology of congenital lobar emphysema proposed that there could be a 3- to 5-fold increase in the number of alveoli in the affected lobes of the lung compared to normal lobes. The reason behind air trapping in poly-alveolar lobes is not known. Congenital lobar emphysema could also be due to internal bronchial disease. The bronchial disease can be stenosis, atresia, or bronchomalacia. Diseases originating from structures adjoining lungs or bronchi such as vessels, mediastinal masses may also cause congenital lobar emphysema.
The incidence of CLE among live births is 1 out of 20,000-30,000. The occurrence is more in males than females with a ratio of 3 to 1. CLE is more common in infants and is extremely rare among adults. Thirty-three percent of the cases are symptomatic at birth. Due to the severity of symptoms, most are diagnosed within the first six months of birth. The left upper lobe is most commonly involved (43%), followed by the right middle lobe (32%) and right upper lobe (21%) involvement. The involvement of the lower lobe is as rare as only 2% of the cases. A quarter of the cases are caused due to deformity of bronchial cartilages and another quarter due to obstruction of bronchi. CLE is also associated with anomalies of other systems, especially cardiac in up to 20 percent of the cases.
Histologically, there is no tissue destruction observed, such as in acquired emphysema. There is no destruction of alveolar walls and alveolar septum, normal acinus structure, but no acinar maturation with age and overinflated alveoli. Congenital lobar emphysema has two forms:
In the great number of CLE cases, there are normal numbers of radial alveoli. Nonetheless, there is no remarkable progression with age as to normal individuals inferring that acinar development in the concerned lung ends in the postpartum period. In hypo-alveolar, there are fewer than the expected number of alveoli, and in poly-alveolar, there are greater than the expected number of alveoli. The airways and arteries are normal for normal in number, size, and structure.
Almost 50% of the patients are symptomatic at birth and another 50% present within the first six months of life. The patient usually presents with difficulty in feeding and breathing, wheezing, retractions, and cyanosis. There is typically a history of chronic cough and recurrent respiratory infections. Due to overlapping symptoms, some patients are wrongly diagnosed with pneumonia or pneumothorax instead of congenital lobar emphysema. Lobes affected with CLE are overinflated; thus, there is impaired ventilation and perfusion. Due to progressive overinflation, there is compression of adjacent organs leading to further impairment of ventilation/perfusion and, ultimately, respiratory failure.
On physical examination, there is usually wheezing and rhonchi. The affected lobe is hyper-resonant on percussion, and breath sounds are diminished in the area. Congenital cardiac defects are usually associated with congenital lobar emphysema.
Patients with congenital lobar emphysema develop air-trapping and hyperinflation in the affected lobes, but they are poorly perfused. It is vital for pediatric as well as adult radiologists to be familiar with radiological features of congenital lobar emphysema to maximize diagnostic accuracy. Patients with congenital lobar emphysema could even be diagnosed prenatally. The lungs of a fetus affected with congenital lobar emphysema show hyper-echogenicity without abnormal blood flow. This may also be accompanied by polyhydramnios or mediastinal shift. Magnetic resonance imaging is also safe to use prenatally to confirm the diagnosis.
A chest x-ray is the first examination of choice in patients with respiratory distress. The affected lobe shows overinflation and hyperlucency in the case of congenital lobar emphysema.
Computed tomography (CT) of lungs is the gold standard for the diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema. It helps in the evaluation of the affected lobe as well as surrounding structures. CT-scan of the chest with IV contrast can help evaluate the vascular anomalies related to CLE.
To determine if lobectomy should be used as the treatment for congenital lobar emphysema, a single-photon emission tomography combined with computed tomography could be used to assess the relationship of perfusion to ventilation in affected lobes.
High clinical suspicion for congenital lobar emphysema should be present too to be able to diagnose the patients presenting with symptoms.
Clinical severity of patients with congenital lobar emphysema defines the treatment of choice. Apart from a few asymptomatic patients, almost half of the patients show symptoms within the first month of birth. Patients with mild or moderate symptoms could be treated conservatively. In case of severe symptoms, lobectomy is the gold standard for the treatment. However, the conservative treatment seems to be increasing as a result of antenatal diagnosis and intrauterine regression.
Congenital lobar emphysema should be differentiated from:
Congenital Lobar emphysema can have the following complications:
Patients may require to consult these specialties for appropriate diagnosis and treatment:
Patients with congenital lobar emphysema can present differently. The usual presentation is respiratory distress, wheezing, cyanosis, and difficulty in feeding. The parents of the newly diagnosed patient should be given emotional support and detailed information about the condition, its treatment, prognosis, and effects on everyday life.
Asymptomatic patient: If the patient is asymptomatic, the parents should be guided about conservative management. There should be regular follow-up and observation, and the parents should be advised of the steps that should be taken if the patient starts to show symptoms.
Symptomatic patient: If the patient has severe symptoms, parents should be guided about the possibility of surgery (lobectomy) as well as its prognosis and lifestyle changes accordingly. The parents should be provided with educational material about the disease. Flow charts, diagrams, and videos should be used to explain each and every aspect of the disease, treatment, and lifestyle changes until the parents fully understand everything and are satisfied with the provision of care.
Here are some important points to remember:
It is the responsibility of healthcare professionals that the parents of the patient have a good understanding of the disease and the appropriate treatment available for the disease. The diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema in the newborn is usually distressing and can cause significant anxiety. Healthcare providers need to provide emotional support to the parents of the newly diagnosed patient.
The therapeutic approach to congenital lobar emphysema should utilize an interprofessional team, including primary care physician, pediatrician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, radiologist, and thoracic surgeon to establish a definitive diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment. If the patient has mild or moderate symptoms, treatment is conservative. Primary care providers or pediatricians can closely monitor patients who are asymptomatic and have no local or systemic manifestations. Patients with serious manifestations such as respiratory failure and cyanosis should be referred to a thoracic surgeon for lobectomy.
|||Demir OF,Hangul M,Kose M, Congenital lobar emphysema: diagnosis and treatment options. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 2019; [PubMed PMID: 31118601]|
|||Hislop A,Reid L, New pathological findings in emphysema of childhood. 1. Polyalveolar lobe with emphysema. Thorax. 1970 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 5494677]|
|||Michelson E, Clinical spectrum of infantile lobar emphysema. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 1977 Aug; [PubMed PMID: 327959]|
|||Warner JO,Rubin S,Heard BE, Congenital lobar emphysema: a case with bronchial atresia and abnormal bronchial cartilages. British journal of diseases of the chest. 1982 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 7093137]|
|||Cochran ST,Gyepes MT,Smith LE, Obstruction of the airways by the heart and pulmonary vessels in infants. Pediatric radiology. 1977 Sep 1; [PubMed PMID: 142958]|
|||Abdel-Bary M,Abdel-Naser M,Okasha A,Zaki M,Abdel-Baseer K, Clinical and surgical aspects of congenital lobar over-inflation: a single center retrospective study. Journal of cardiothoracic surgery. 2020 May 19; [PubMed PMID: 32429981]|
|||Moideen I,Nair SG,Cherian A,Rao SG, Congenital lobar emphysema associated with congenital heart disease. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2006 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 16616669]|
|||Olutoye OO,Coleman BG,Hubbard AM,Adzick NS, Prenatal diagnosis and management of congenital lobar emphysema. Journal of pediatric surgery. 2000 May; [PubMed PMID: 10813352]|
|||Oliver ER,DeBari SE,Horii SC,Pogoriler JE,Victoria T,Khalek N,Howell LJ,Adzick NS,Coleman BG, Congenital Lobar Overinflation: A Rare Enigmatic Lung Lesion on Prenatal Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. 2019 May; [PubMed PMID: 30208226]|
|||Sasieta HC,Nichols FC,Kuzo RS,Boland JM,Utz JP, Congenital Lobar Emphysema in an Adult. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2016 Aug 1; [PubMed PMID: 27275927]|
|||Ulku R,Onat S,Ozçelik C, Congenital lobar emphysema: differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach. Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2008 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 19261115]|
|||Ceran S,Altuntas B,Sunam GS,Bulut I, Congenital lobar emphysema: is surgery routinely necessary? African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS. 2010 Jan-Apr; [PubMed PMID: 20098010]|
|||Hong C,Deng H,Li M,Zhou WP,Tang J,Xia B,Yu G,Zhang L, Gene expression profiling reveals differential patterns between microcystic congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and congenital lobar emphysema. Early human development. 2019 Jan [PubMed PMID: 30583279]|
|||Reed A,Lucas SF,Nowacka A,Eze C, Iatrogenic pneumothorax in a 4-week-old girl: new diagnosis of congenital lobar emphysema. BMJ case reports. 2020 Feb 20 [PubMed PMID: 32086328]|
|||Dillman JR,Sanchez R,Ladino-Torres MF,Yarram SG,Strouse PJ,Lucaya J, Expanding upon the unilateral hyperlucent hemithorax in children. Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc. 2011 May-Jun [PubMed PMID: 21571653]|
|||Keith HH, Congenital lobar emphysema. Pediatric annals. 1977 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 882286]|